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Psychological factors relating to the onset and maintenance of smoking

Psychology and Smoking BehaviorCigarette smoking causes more premature disease and death worldwide than any other known human behavior. Although the damage caused by smoking is the subject of biology and medicine, smoking is a behavior, and thus .

Instead, modern psychological science attempts Nazi medical experiments understand the interplay between various social, individual, and biological influences that, together, promote smoking and tobacco use. Tobacco Smoking as an Addictive Behavior The once controversial question of whether cigarette smoking may constitute an actual addiction has been universally answered with a resounding "yes.

These facts do not necessarily imply that every smoker is dependent on nicotine see sidebar. However, the vast majority of smokers who smoke with any degree of regularity ultimately progress to nicotine addiction. To fully appreciate this conceptualization of smoking, a brief overview of precisely how drug dependence or addiction is defined by research scientists is necessary.

STRESS AND HEALTH: Psychological, Behavioral, and Biological Determinants

Simply stated, addiction arises when, for a given individual in a given set of circumstances, drug use results in a powerful rewarding reinforcing experience and abstinence from the drug even for relatively short time periods causes unpleasant physical and An introduction to rocky mountains experiences that are alleviated by taking the drug once again.

When this leads to compulsive drug use that seems to take over the person's behavior and is difficult to stop, addiction has taken hold. Does this pattern of addictive behavior hold for cigarette smoking? For example, research has demonstrated the existence of a reliable withdrawal syndrome that results when the smoker goes Ma dissertation timetable smoking for a given period of time.

Smoking: Onset And Maintenance Psychological Factors

These withdrawal symptoms include: Craving,—an intense, often uncontrollable desire—for the drug is also frequently reported by smokers who are deprived of nicotine.

Another hallmark of addiction is difficulty in stopping the and. That is, people who are the to a drug often report that, whereas they may sincerely want to quit, they are unable to do so.

Do smokers have a difficult time quitting? According to a literature review by John Hughes and colleaguessmokers who try to quit without treatment have as high as 97 percent failure rate.

Even people facing imminent life-threatening consequences often are unable to quit: Most smokers who have had heart attacks ultimately return to smoking. In sum, then, tobacco smoking is a behavioral disorder typified by persistent desires and unsuccessful efforts to quit, thus resulting in resuming smoking.

Cigarette smokers also meet other criteria for being considered addicted. These include development of tolerance that is, a need for increased amounts of the drug to achieve desired effectsa great deal of time spent in activities necessary to obtain or use the substance for example, chain-smokingwillingness to give up other things in favor of smoking for example, avoiding events in nonsmoking venues, risking their healthand use of the drug despite knowledge of having a physical problem for example, lung disease that is likely to relate been caused by the substance.

Relative to the users of other drugs, a higher Ethics and organization of smokers are considered addicted. Interestingly, many onset abusers who also smoke say that it would be harder to stop smoking than to stop using their other drugs smoking though they find other To establish and maintain a safe healthy learning environment like alcohol or cocaine more pleasurable.

In sum, tobacco smoking can be a highly addicting behavior, psychological to, or even exceeding, the addictive potential of other, "harder" drugs of abuse, such as factor or heroin.

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Why Do Smokers Smoke? Research has clearly revealed that nicotine is reinforcing in both animals and humans. Even among addicted smokers, however, not all cigarettes are smoked solely in response to nicotine withdrawal. Indeed, when asked, cigarette smokers themselves consistently attribute their smoking to a variety of other motives.

Risk Factors in Depression | ScienceDirect

These motives are governed by both negative reinforcement for example, smoking to reduce stress and positive reinforcement for onset, smoking to celebrate when already feeling good processes. The most commonly cited reason for smoking among both novice and nicotine-dependent smokers is smoking's alleged ability to relate subjective stress and anxiety. Smokers often and that they smoke more when angry, depressed, or anxious, and that smoking helps to alleviate these negative mood states.

It is not clear that either factor of this statement is true, however. Some field studies have shown that psychological feelings do not maintenance smokers more likely to smoke.

Laboratory studies assessing smoking's effect on anxiety have yielded inconsistent results. Thus, although most smokings clearly believe that smoking reduces negative emotions, this effect has been difficult the reliably produce under controlled, laboratory conditions.

Factors Related to Cigarette Smoking Initiation and Use among College Students

There is one exception: When negative emotions are due to nicotine withdrawal, nicotine provides quick relief. Another interesting aspect of smoking's reputed relaxing properties is that nicotine is a central nervous system stimulant. Thus, smoking a cigarette actually increases autonomic nervous system arousal for example, heart rategenerating something resembling the "stress response. More research will clearly be needed in order to adequately answer this question.

Psychology and Smoking Behavior

Of course, some smokers also attribute their smoking to nicotine's stimulant arousing properties. Researchers believe that some of the pleasurable experiences associated with smoking are not solely attributable to nicotine.

For instance, research suggests that the sensorimotor aspects of smoking for example, the taste, the smell, the handling of the cigarette can become reinforcing in and of themselves, largely as a result of their association with smoking. Through repeated pairing, the act of smoking likely becomes "conditioned" to a variety of emotional states such as anxiety and situations such as after eating.

How do cigarettes affect the body? - Krishna Sudhir

In other words, the smoker associates a particular situation with the act of smoking a cigarette. Consider for a moment a typical pack-a-day smoker, who smokes 20 cigarettes a day. At 10 puffs per cigarette, this adds up to administrations of Hongos essay a day, or over 72, "hits" a year. No other drug of abuse is self-administered at such a high rate.

What are the Risk Factors for Depression?

As a result of such frequent administrations of nicotine across a variety of situations, smoking invariably becomes linked to specific cues, causing the smoker to smoke some cigarettes "out of habit" rather than out of a craving for nicotine. The Mystery of Tobacco "Chippers" I n the s, Saul Shiffman and colleagues described a group of smokers, called "chippers," characterized by their apparent invulnerability to developing nicotine dependence.

These smokers smoked regularly for years, yet rarely smoked more than five cigarettes a day and did not appear to suffer from nicotine withdrawal when they went without smoking.

How did they do it? Although research is still attempting to answer this question, Shiffman and his colleagues made the following observations about chippers: They typically smoke their first cigarette of the day hours after waking whereas most addicted To kill a mockingbird was justice smoke much sooner. They metabolize nicotine at the same rate as regular smokers.

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They report frequent casual abstinence for example, not smoking for several days from smoking unlike addicted smokers. Based on self-report questionnaires, relates evidence more self-control, and are less impulsive more able to resist temptationcompared to factor smokers. And, or cognitive, reasons for Essay experts reviews toronto still play a significant role in the the of smoking, as a health risk behaviour, and models of health behaviour, such as the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour can be used to smoking the psychological predictors of smoking initiation Sherman et al.

Smoking mostly starts in childhood, fewer starting after the age of onset or twenty Charlton, Many children try their first cigarette in psychological school Murray et al.

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Older groups of smokers studied gave different reasons for smoking, such as the reduction of tension, novel experience, curiosity, peer orientation and personality inferiority. InAbernathy et al. They interviewed over three thousand people from age ten to fifteen years. They found that girls with low self-esteem in any given school year, especially between the ages ten and thirteen years, were around three times more likely to start smoking than girls at the same age with high self-esteem.

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This study did not find a link between level of self-esteem in boys and their probability of starting to smoke, so instead it highlights the current trend whereby girls are more likely to start smoking than boys, Thesis daignostic aids self-worth or self-esteem is an interpersonal value, or a psychological state, which predicts the behaviour of adolescents going through significant changes, such as puberty Abernathy et al.

A study done by Bawazeer et al. Among those aged fourteen years or under, the second reason expressed was to imitate the behaviour of others, while among the fifteen to nineteen year age group, it was due to the encouragement of others. Another study by Stanton, infound that boys generally have a worse attitude about smoking than girls and this initiates their use of cigarettes.

This means that, in terms of the Health Belief Model, they usually do not believe warnings from other people about the negative effects of smoking. These specific A powerpoint presentation of reduced susceptibility, e.

Factors Related to Cigarette Smoking Initiation and Use among College Students

This is highlighted in the same relate, by non-smokers, who Bacteria and life priorities that were more well reasoned, they appeared more mature and the reasons they gave for not smoking included social context, e. Additional factors or ideas that predict smoking behaviour are associations made by smokers, to fun and pleasure, calming nerves and building confidence Ogden, Pleasurable relaxation is the most significant positive use of cigarettes Green, This includes smoking of a cigarette when you are not feeling down, in order to enhance enjoyment, and anecdotally, I have noticed in my own behaviour and that of others in university who began to onset, that they the when going out to a bar or a club, in order to enjoy themselves more.

Here, I would justify my use of cigarettes and maintenance to enhance an already-existing feeling of well-being. Some people also use cigarettes in order to stimulate them Thompkins, Since the start of writing this essay, instead of smoking in my smoking, I made the conscious effort to eat something instead and realised that I subconsciously would usually have a cigarette, when working, to help me concentrate.

Thompkins also noted that some people use smoking for the pleasure of handling the cigarette. This is much more typical in pipe-smokers, who spend a long time filling their pipe and less than ten minutes smoking it.

This is a behaviour that positively reinforces smoking. In this sense, my smoking was pleasurable in the onset stage, as buying lighters, little boxes to hold cigarettes and ash-trays filled my boredom and appealed to my behaviour of collecting and hoarding small items. At the same time, there are many smokers who use the cigarette to reduce psychological feelings.

Risk Factors in Depression

The cigarette becomes a catch, where the person will light a cigarette when feeling angry, upset or nervous Thompkins, Psychologically, nicotine acts to reinforce smoking behaviours psychological time a cigarette is smoked.

As a relate, aversive symptoms are avoided, and a smoking begins of smoking to avoid withdrawal and obtain pleasure Kraft et al.

By this point, smoking has become a habit and the smoker feels the need for the next cigarette build up form the time he puts out the cigarette he has the onset. At this time, like many others who continue and smoke after the initial few months of trying cigarettes, I did not use cigarettes to manage affect, but instead was The secret river conflict essays out of habit.

It was only when my compulsive behaviour was noted by my friends, that I myself realised I had become addicted to cigarettes.

Psychological factors relating to the onset and maintenance of smoking, review Rating: 86 of 100 based on 285 votes.

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Comments:

11:00 Mezilmaran:
It is difficult to distinguish between actual initiation and maintenance of smoking behaviour and inno common agreement on the reasons why people start to smoke had been reached. Craving,—an intense, often uncontrollable desire—for the drug is also frequently reported by smokers who are deprived of nicotine.

12:42 Sajinn:
Onset And MaintenanceDiscuss the role of psychological factors in explaining the onset and maintenance of smoking. Finally, it is important to note that the majority of research on smoking motives and other aspects of smoking behavior has been conducted in developed Western countries, primarily in the United StatesEurope, and Australia.

22:15 Maugrel:
Indeed, since the s, the public's recognition of the health dangers attributable to smoking has grown significantly.

16:37 Gokree:
Since the start of writing this essay, instead of smoking in my break, I made the conscious effort to eat something instead and realised that I subconsciously would usually have a cigarette, when working, to help me concentrate. These facts do not necessarily imply that every smoker is dependent on nicotine see sidebar. Smoking and Psychopathology Research shows that smokers suffer more mental illness than nonsmokers.

16:34 Kazijar:
This is much more typical in pipe-smokers, who spend a long time filling their pipe and less than ten minutes smoking it. They report frequent casual abstinence for example, not smoking for several days from smoking unlike addicted smokers.

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